Thursday, April 25, 2024
ExplainerInternet of Things

Internet of Things (IoT) Introduction | IoT Tutorial Part-1 | IoT Basics

This IoT Tutorial describes Internet of Things (IoT) Basics, Design of IoT, Communication models, Protocols and Applications. This IoT tutorial covers following terms in this article :

  • What is IoT | Internet of things
  • Physical and Logical Design of IoT
    • Physical design of IoT
      • Things
      • IoT Protocols
    • Logical design of IoT
      • IoT Functional Blocks
      • IoT Communication Models
      • IoT Communication APIs
  • Internet of Things Protocols
    • IoT Data Protocols
    • Wireless IoT Network Protocols
  • IoT Enabling Technologies
  • Domain Specific IoTs | IoT Applications
  • Goverment Application in IoT
  • Role of IoT in Smart City

What is IoT ? | Internet of Things

Internet of things (IoT) provides IP connectivity to various Things apart from general Desktops, Laptops and Mobile Devices. The term “things” means any physical parameter that could be sensed and connected to Internet. For example a device monitoring temperature and humidity at certain location and relaying the data will become a “thing’” in IoT domain.

Internet of things is a connecting bridge between physical world and cyber world and Machine to Machine communication i.e. without human intervention is one of the subset of it. IoT Refers to uniquely identifiable objects and their virtual representations in an Internet like structure. IoT all together a new environment in which current Internet will be smartly utilized by all new range of embedded connected things.

Sensors are the building blocks of Internet of things which can collect parameters and low power wireless embedded systems transmit information to gateway devices. Gateway device will make the parameters available over internet so that parameters are globally accessible. Till now there is no dedicated network stack defined for IoT, as it is a heterogeneous network of networks. The most popular protocols used for realization of IoT are Zigbee and 6lowPAN (IEEE 802.15.4), Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.  -By CDAC INDIA

What is an example of an Internet of Things device?

Any physical object can be transformed into an IoT device if it can be connected to the internet to be controlled or communicate information. A lightbulb that can be switched on using a smartphone app is an IoT device, as is a motion sensor or a smart thermostat in your office or a connected streetlight. An IoT device could be as fluffy as a child’s toy or as serious as a driverless truck. Some larger objects may themselves be filled with many smaller IoT components, such as a jet engine that’s now filled with thousands of sensors collecting and transmitting data back to make sure it is operating efficiently. At an even bigger scale, smart cities projects are filling entire regions with sensors to help us understand and control the environment.

IoT Sensors and Actuators

Internet of Things

Above picture is an Equation of Internet of things. IoT Sensors and Actuators plays main role in any IoT Projects. Without IoT Sensors and Actuators, there’s no IoT.

Generally speaking, a Sensor is a device that is able to detect changes in an environment. By itself, a sensor is useless, but when we use it in an electronic system, it plays a key role. A sensor is able to measure a physical phenomenon (like temperature, pressure, and so on) and transform it into an electric signal. So Sensors are hardware components that can detect events or changes in its surroundings, and then provide a corresponding output. Sensors are the eyes and ears of any IoT Project.

An Actuator is a device that converts energy into motion. It is usually used to apply a force on some thing. In our example, the actuator would apply force to switch on the motor of the water pump. Actuators can create linear, oscillatory or rotatory motion based on how they are designed.

Read in deatil :

What is the scope of Internet of things?

Internet of Things can connect devices embedded in various systems to the internet. When devices/objects can represent themselves digitally, they can be controlled from anywhere. The connectivity then helps us capture more data from more places, ensuring more ways of increasing efficiency and improving safety and IoT security.

IoT is a transformational force that can help companies improve performance through IoT analytics and IoT Security to deliver better results. Businesses in the utilities, oil & gas, insurance, manufacturing, transportation, infrastructure and retail sectors can reap the benefits of IoT by making more informed decisions, aided by the torrent of interactional and transactional data at their disposal.

How can Internet of things help?

IoT platforms can help organizations reduce cost through improved process efficiency, asset utilization and productivity. With improved tracking of devices/objects using sensors and connectivity, they can benefit from real-time insights and analytics, which would help them make smarter decisions. The growth and convergence of data, processes and things on the internet would make such connections more relevant and important, creating more opportunities for people, businesses and industries.

Physical and Logical Design of Internet of Things

Design of IoT divided into Physical and Logical Design of IoT.

Physical Design of IoT system refers to IoT Devices and IoT Protocols. Things are Node device which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. Communication established between things and cloud based server over the Internet by various IoT protocols.

Logical design of IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities & processes without going into the low-level specifies of the implementation.

Physical Design of IoT

Physical Design of IoT refers to IoT Devices and IoT Protocols. Things are Node device which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. IoT Protocols helps Communication established between things and cloud based server over the Internet.


Basically Things refers to IoT Devices which have unique identities and can perform remote sensing, actuating and monitoring capabilities. Things are is main part of IoT Application. IoT Devices can be various type, Sensing Devices, Smart Watches, Smart Electronics appliances, Wearable Sensors, Automobiles, and industrial machines. These devices generate data in some forms or the other which when processed by data analytics systems leads to useful information to guide further actions locally or remotely.

block diagram of iot device

For example, Temperature data generated by a Temperature Sensor in Home or other place, when processed can help in determining temperature and take action according to users.

Above picture, shows a generic block diagram of IoT device. It may consist of several interfaces for connections to other devices. IoT Device has I/O interface for Sensors, Similarly for Internet connectivity, Storage and Audio/Video.

IoT Device collect data from on-board or attached Sensors and Sensed data communicated either to other device or Cloud based sever. Today many cloud servers available for especially IoT System. These Platfrom  known as IoT Platform. Actually these cloud especially design for IoT purpose. So here we can analysis and processed data easily.

How it works ? For example if relay switch connected to an IoT device can turn On/Off an appliance on the commands sent to the IoT device over the Internet.

IoT Protocols

IoT protcols help to establish Communication between IoT Device (Node Device) and Cloud based Server over the Internet. It help to sent commands to IoT Device and received data from an IoT device over the Internet. An image is given below. By this image you can understand which protocols used.

IoT Protocols

Link Layer

Link layer protocols determine how data is physically sent over the network’s physical layer or medium (Coxial calbe or other or radio wave). Link Layer determines how the packets are coded and signaled by the hardware device over the medium to which the host is attached (eg. coxial cable).

Here we explain some Link Layer Protocols:

802.3 – Ethernet : Ethernet is a set of technologies and protocols that are used primarily in LANs. It was first standardized in 1980s by IEEE 802.3 standard. IEEE 802.3 defines the physical layer and the medium access control (MAC) sub-layer of the data link layer for wired Ethernet networks. Ethernet is classified into two categories: classic Ethernet and switched Ethernet.

For more information visit Tutorialspoint (Source)

802.11 – WiFi : IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 set of LAN protocols, and specifies the set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) protocols for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) Wi-Fi computer communication in various frequencies, including but not limited to 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz frequency bands.

For more info visit wikipedia (Source)

802.16 – Wi-Max : The standard for WiMAX technology is a standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs) that has been developed by working group number 16 of IEEE 802, specializing in point-to-multipoint broadband wireless access. Initially 802.16a was developed and launched, but now it has been further refined. 802.16d or 802.16-2004 was released as a refined version of the 802.16a standard aimed at fixed applications. Another version of the standard, 802.16e or 802.16-2005 was also released and aimed at the roaming and mobile markets.

For more information visit this (Source)

802.15.4 -LR-WPAN : A collection of standards for Low-rate wireless personal area network. The IEEE’s 802.15.4 standard defines the MAC and PHY layer used by, but not limited to, networking specifications such as Zigbee®, 6LoWPAN, Thread, WiSUN and MiWi™ protocols. The standards provide low-cost and low-speed communication for power constrained devices.

2G/3G/4G- Mobile Communication : These are different types of telecommunication generations. IoT devices are based on these standards can communicate over the celluer networks.

Network Layer

Responsible for sending of IP datagrams from the source network to the destination network. Network layer performs the host addressing and packet routing. We used IPv4 and IPv6 for Host identification. IPv4 and IPv6 are hierarchical IP addrssing schemes.

IPv4 :

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.

For for more detail (Source)

IPv6 : Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4. In December 1998, IPv6 became a Draft Standard for the IETF, who subsequently ratified it as an Internet Standard on 14 July 2017. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, theoretically allowing 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses.  Source – wikipedia

for more detail

6LoWPAN : 6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks.6LoWPAN is the name of a concluded working group in the Internet area of the IETF. 6LoWPAN is a somewhat contorted acronym that combines the latest version of the Internet Protocol (IPv6) and Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (LoWPAN). 6LoWPAN, therefore, allows for the smallest devices with limited processing ability to transmit information wirelessly using an internet protocol. 6LoWPAN can communicate with 802.15.4 devices as well as other types of devices on an IP network link like WiFi.

For more deatils visit this

Transport Layer

This layer provides functions such as error control, segmentation, flow control and congestion control. So this layer protocols provide end-to-end message transfer capability independent of the underlying network.

TCP : TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation through which application programs can exchange data. TCP works with the Internet Protocol (IP), which defines how computers send packets of data to each other. Together, TCP and IP are the basic rules defining the Internet. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defines TCP in the Request for Comment (RFC) standards document number 793.

Source – For more detail :

UDP : User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a Transport Layer protocol. UDP is a part of Internet Protocol suite, referred as UDP/IP suite. Unlike TCP, it is unreliable and connectionless protocol. So, there is no need to establish connection prior to data transfer. Read more here

Application Layer

Application layer protocols define how the applications interface with the lower layer protocols to send over ther network.

HTTP : Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-layer protocol for transmitting hypermedia documents, such as HTML. It was designed for communication between web browsers and web servers, but it can also be used for other purposes. HTTP follows a classical client-server model, with a client opening a connection to make a request, then waiting until it receives a response. HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that the server does not keep any data (state) between two requests. Though often based on a TCP/IP layer, it can be used on any reliable transport layer, that is, a protocol that doesn’t lose messages silently like UDP does. RUDP — the reliable update of UDP — is a suitable alternative.

CoAP : CoAP-Constrained Application Protocol is a specialized Internet Application Protocol for constrained devices, as defined in RFC 7252. It enables devices to communicate over the Internet. It is defined as Contrained Application Protocol, and is a protocol intended to be used in very simple hardware. The protocol is especially targeted for constrained hardware such as 8-bits microcontrollers, low power sensors and similar devices that can’t run on HTTP or TLS. It is a simplification of the HTTP protocol running on UDP, that helps save bandwidth. It is designed for use between devices on the same constrained network (e.g., low-power, lossy networks), between devices and general nodes on the Internet, and between devices on different constrained networks both joined by an internet. CoAP is also being used via other mechanisms, such as SMS on mobile communication networks.

Read more …

WebSocket : The WebSocket Protocol enables two-way communication between a client running untrusted code in a controlled environment to a remote host that has opted-in to communications from that code. The security model used for this is the origin-based security model commonly used by web browsers. The protocol consists of an opening handshake followed by basic message framing, layered over TCP. The goal of this technology is to provide a mechanism for browser-based applications that need two-way communication with servers that does not rely on opening multiple HTTP connections (e.g., using XMLHttpRequest or <iframe>s and long polling).


MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/”Internet of Things” connectivity protocol. It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport and useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. For example, it has been used in sensors communicating to a broker via satellite link, over occasional dial-up connections with healthcare providers, and in a range of home automation and small device scenarios.

MQTT protocol runs on top of the TCP/IP networking stack. When clients connect and publish/subscribe, MQTT has different message types that help with the handshaking of that process. The MQTT header is two bytes and first byte is constant. In the first byte, you specify the type of message being sent as well as the QoS level, retain, and DUP (duplication) flags. The second byte is the remaining length field.

Read my article for more information

XMPP : Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities. Originally named Jabber, the protocol was developed by the eponymous open-source community in 1999 for near real-time instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance. Designed to be extensible, the protocol has been used also for publish-subscribe systems, signalling for VoIP, video, file transfer, gaming, the Internet of Things (IoT) applications such as the smart grid, and social networking services.

DDS : The Data Distribution Service (DDS™) is a middleware protocol and API standard for data-centric connectivity from the Object Management Group® (OMG®). It integrates the components of a system together, providing low-latency data connectivity, extreme reliability, and a scalable architecture that business and mission-critical Internet of Things (IoT) applications need.

In a distributed system, middleware is the software layer that lies between the operating system and applications. It enables the various components of a system to more easily communicate and share data. It simplifies the development of distributed systems by letting software developers focus on the specific purpose of their applications rather than the mechanics of passing information between applications and systems.

Source –

AMQP : The AMQP – IoT protocols consist of a hard and fast of components that route and save messages within a broker carrier, with a set of policies for wiring the components together. The AMQP protocol enables patron programs to talk to the dealer and engage with the AMQP model. AMQP has the following three additives, which might link into processing chains in the server to create the favored capability.

  • Exchange: Receives messages from publisher primarily based programs and routes them to ‘message queues’.
  • Message Queue: Stores messages until they may thoroughly process via the eating client software.
  • Binding: States the connection between the message queue and the change.

Logical Design of IoT

Logical design of IoT system refers to an abstract representation of the entities & processes without going into the low-level specifies of the implementation. For understanding Logical Design of IoT, we describes given below terms.

  • IoT Functional Blocks
  • IoT Communication Models
  • IoT Communication APIs

IoT Functional Blocks

An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication and management.

functional blocks are:

Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions.

Communication: Handles the communication for the IoT system.

Services: services for device monitoring, device control service, data publishing services and services for device discovery.

Management: this blocks provides various functions to govern the IoT system.

Security: this block secures the IoT system and by providing functions such as authentication , authorization, message and content integrity, and data security.

Application: This is an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Application also allow users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data.

Internet of Things - Logical Design of IoT

IoT Communication Models

Request-Response Model

Request-response model is communication model in which the client sends requests to the server and the server responds to the requests. When the server receives a request, it decides how to respond, fetches the data, retrieves resource representation, prepares the response, and then sends the response to the client. Request-response is a stateless communication model and each request-response pair is independent of others.

HTTP works as a request-response protocol between a client and server. A web browser may be the client, and an application on a computer that hosts a web site may be the server.

Example: A client (browser) submits an HTTP request to the server; then the server returns a response to the client. The response contains status information about the request and may also contain the requested content.

Logical Design of IoT

Publish-Subscribe Model

Publish-Subscribe is a communication model that involves publishers, brokers and consumers. Publishers are the source of data. Publishers send the data to the topics which are managed by the broker. Publishers are not aware of the consumers. Consumers subscribe to the topics which are managed by the broker. When the broker receive data for a topic from the publisher, it sends the data to all the subscribed consumers.

ps model

Push-Pull Model

Push-Pull is a communication model in which the data producers push the data to queues and the consumers Pull the data from the Queues. Producers do not need to be aware of the consumers. Queues help in decoupling the messaging between the Producers and Consumers. Queues also act as a buffer which helps in situations when there is a mismatch between the rate at which the producers push data and the rate rate at which the consumer pull data.

pp model

Exclusive Pair Model

Exclusive Pair is a bidirectional, fully duplex communication model that uses a persistent connection between the client and server. Connection is setup it remains open until the client sends a request to close the connection. Client and server can send messages to each other after connection setup. Exclusive pair is stateful communication model and the server is aware of all the open connections.

ep modelIoT Communication APIs

Generally we used Two APIs For IoT Communication. These IoT Communication APIs are:

  • REST-based Communication APIs
  • WebSocket-based Communication APIs

REST-based Communication APIs

Representational state transfer (REST) is a set of architectural principles by which you can design Web services the Web APIs that focus on systems’s resources and how resource states are addressed and transferred. REST APIs that follow the request response communication model, the rest architectural constraint apply to the components, connector and data elements,  within a distributed hypermedia system.  The rest architectural constraint are as follows:

Client-server –  The principle behind the client-server constraint is the separation of concerns. for example clients should not be concerned with the storage of data which is concern of the serve. Similarly the server should not be concerned about the user interface, which is concern of the clien.  Separation allows client and server to be independently developed and updated.

Stateless – Each request from client to server must contain all the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. The session state is kept entirely on the client.

Cache-able – Cache constraints requires that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly leveled as cache-able or non cache-able. If a response is cache-able, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that repsonse data for later, equivalent requests. caching can partially or completely eliminate some instructions and improve efficiency and scalability.

Layered system – layered system constraints, constrains the behavior of components such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with they are interacting. For example, the client cannot tell whether it is connected directly to the end server or two an intermediaryalong the way. System scalability can be improved by allowing intermediaries to respond to requests instead of the end server, without  the client having to do anything different.

Uniform interface – uniform interface constraints requires that the method of communication between client and server must be uniform. Resources are identified in the requests (by URIsin web based systems) and are themselves is separate from the representations of the resources data returned to the client. When a client holds a representation of resources it has all the information required to update or delete the resource you (provided the client has required permissions). Each message includes enough information to describe how to process the message.

Code on demand – Servers can provide executable code or scripts for clients to execute in their context. this constraint is the only one that is optional.

A RESTful web service is a ” Web API ” implemented using HTTP and REST principles. REST is most popular IoT Communication APIs.

HTTP methods
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) GET PUT PATCH POST DELETE
Collection, such as List the URIs and perhaps other details of the collection’s members. Replace the entire collection with another collection. Not generally used Create a new entry in the collection. The new entry’s URI is assigned automatically and is usually returned by the operation. Delete the entire collection.
Element, such as Retrieve a representation of the addressed member of the collection, expressed in an appropriate Internet media type. Replace the addressed member of the collection, or if it does not exist, create it. Update the addressed member of the collection. Not generally used. Treat the addressed member as a collection in its own right and create a new entry within it. Delete the addressed member of the collection.

WebSocket based communication API

Websocket APIs allow bi-directional,  full duplex communication between clients and servers. Websocket APIs follow the exclusive pair communication model. Unlike request-response model such as REST, the WebSocket APIs allow full duplex communication and do not require  new coonection to be setup for each message to be sent. Websocket communication begins with a connection setup request sent by the client to the server. The request (called websocket handshake) is sent over HTTP and the server interprets it is an upgrade request. If the server supports websocket protocol, the server responds to the websocket handshake response. After the connection setup client and server can send data/mesages to each other in full duplex mode. Websocket API reduce the network traffic and letency as there is no overhead for connection setup and termination requests for each message. Websocket suitable for IoT applications that have low latency or high throughput requirements. So Web socket is most suitable IoT Communication APIs for IoT System.

Logical Design of IoT

Internet of Things Protocols

Internet of Things Protocols help to establish Communication between IoT Device (Node Device) and Cloud based Server over the Internet. It help to sent commands to IoT Device and received data from an IoT device over the Internet. We expain some most popular Internet of Things Protocols here. We diveded Internet of Things Protocols into two types IoT Data Protocols and Wireless Iot Network Protocols. This is not actual classification of IoT Protocols, Read this for understanding Internet of Things Protocols :

IoT Data Protocols

Some Popular IoT Data Protocols is – MQTT, CoAP and AMQP.

Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

The CoAP protocol is specified in RFC 7252. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and constrained networks in the Internet of Things.
Coap is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation. The protocol is targetted for Internet of Things (IoT) devices having less memory and less power specifications.

On top of CoAP, the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) has defined “Lightweight M2M” as a simple, low-cost remote management and service enablement mechanism.

Following are the features of CoAP Protocol:
• It is very efficient RESTful protocol.
• Easy to proxy to/from HTTP.
• Open IETF standard
• Embedded web transfer protocol (coap://)
• It uses asynchronous transaction model.
• UDP is binding with reliability and multicast support.
• GET, POST, PUT and DELETE methods are used.
• URI is supported.
• It uses small and simple 4 byte header.
• Supports binding to UDP, SMS and TCP.
• DTLS based PSK, RPK and certificate security is used.
• uses subset of MIME types and HTTP response codes.
• Uses built in discovery mechanism.

Read more: COAP vs MQTT | Difference between COAP and MQTT protocolsCoAP Protocol- Constrained Application Protocol

Internet of Things Protocols

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport Protocol (MQTT) – Internet of Things Protocols

MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/”Internet of Things” connectivity protocol. It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport and useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. For example, it has been used in sensors communicating to a broker via satellite link, over occasional dial-up connections with healthcare providers, and in a range of home automation and small device scenarios.

MQTT protocol runs on top of the TCP/IP networking stack. When clients connect and publish/subscribe, MQTT has different message types that help with the handshaking of that process. The MQTT header is two bytes and first byte is constant. In the first byte, you specify the type of message being sent as well as the QoS level, retain, and DUP (duplication) flags. The second byte is the remaining length field.

Features of MQTT?

  • Distribute information more efficiently
  • Increase scalability
  • Reduce network bandwidth consumption dramatically
  • Reduce update rates to seconds
  • Very well-suited for remote sensing and control
  • Maximize available bandwidth
  • Extremely lightweight overhead
  • Very secure with permission-based security
  • Used by the oil-and-gas industry, Amazon, Facebook, and other major businesses
  • Saves development time
  • Collects more data with less bandwidth compared to polling protocols

Internet of Things Protocols

If you’re new to messaging protocols visit this : MQTT | What is MQTT | MQTT in Depth | QoS | FAQs | MQTT Introduction

Recommended: MQTT Servers/BrokersMQTT Public Brokers List | MQTT 5 | Overview | What’s New | MQTT Features | MQTT 5.0

Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) – Internet of Things Protocols

The AMQP – IoT protocols consist of a hard and fast of components that route and save messages within a broker carrier, with a set of policies for wiring the components together. The AMQP protocol enables patron programs to talk to the dealer and engage with the AMQP model. AMQP has the following three additives, which might link into processing chains in the server to create the favored capability.

  • Exchange: Receives messages from publisher primarily based programs and routes them to ‘message queues’.
  • Message Queue: Stores messages until they may thoroughly process via the eating client software.
  • Binding: States the connection between the message queue and the change.


Wireless IoT Network Protocols


Bluetooth is a global 2.4 GHz personal area network for short-range wireless communication.  Device-to-device file transfers, wireless speakers, and wireless headsets are often enabled with Bluetooth.


BLE is a version of Bluetooth designed for lower-powered devices that use less data. To conserve power, BLE remains in sleep mode except when a connection is initiated. This makes it ideal for wearable fitness trackers and health monitors.


(Narrow-Band IoT) A technology being standardized by the 3GPP standards bodyThe ZigBee protocol uses the 802.15.4 standard and operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps. The maximum number of nodes in the network is 1024 with a range up to 200 meter. ZigBee can use 128 bit AES encryption.


Z-Wave is a sub-GHz mesh network protocol, and is a proprietary stack. It operates in the sub-1GHz band and is impervious to interference from WiFi and other wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz range such as Bluetooth or ZigBee. It’s often used for security systems, home automation, and lighting controls.


6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. It is an adaption layer for IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 links. This protocol operates only in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with 250 kbps transfer rate. IPv6, is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks. It is an open IoT network protocol like ZigBee, and it is primarily used for home and building automation.


Built on open standards and IPv6 technology with 6LoWPAN as its foundation. You could think of it as Google’s version of ZigBee. You can actually use some of the same chips for Thread and ZigBee, because they’re both based on 802.15.4.

WiFi-ah (HaLow)

Designed specifically for low data rate, long-range sensors and controllers, 802.11ah is far more IoT-centric than many other WiFi counterparts.

2G (GSM)

2G is the “old-school” TDMA (usually) cellular protocol. ATMs and old alarm systems used this— and in most parts of the world it is phased out or in the process of being phased out.

3G & 4G

3G was the first “high speed” cellular network, and is a name that refers to a number of technologies that meet IMT-2000 standards. 4G is the generation of cellular standards that followed 3G, and is what most people use today for mobile cellular data. You can use 3G and 4G for IoT devices, but the application needs a constant power source or must be able to be recharged regularly.

LTE Cat 0, 1, & 3

With LTE classes, the lower the speed, the lower the amount of power they use. LTE Cat 1 and 0 are typically more suitable for IoT devices.


This is the first cellular wireless protocol that was build from the ground up for IoT devices. That being said, it isn’t available yet, so how it performs remains to be seen.

With LTE,  it’s worth understanding that carriers typically don’t have to modify hardware for their basestations; upgrades can be done entirely through software. This really helps with infrastructure costs, because companies won’t necessarily need new cellular basestations, just new endpoint hardware.


(Narrow-Band IoT) A technology being standardized by the 3GPP standards body is another way to tackle cellular M2M for low power devices. It is based on a DSSS modulation similar to the old Neul version of Weightless-W. Huawei, Ericsson, and Qualcomm are active proponents of this protocol and are involved in putting it together.


Though it likely won’t be released for another five years, 5G is set to be the next generation of cellular network protocol. It’s designed for high throughput, and it will probably face the same issues as 3G and 4G in regards to IoT.


NFC,is the acronym for Near Field Communication.It is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that enables the exchange of data between devices.It enables two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other.


Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields. RFID is not new since it has been used almost in every industry to identify and track tags attached to objects automatically. The tags stores information electronically. There are two types of RFID tags, Active and Passive. Passive tags collect energy from RFID reader’s radio waves whereas Active tags have its power source such as a battery and can operate at hundreds of meters distance from the RFID reader. RFID technology can be used in the IoT to identify objects and link them to the Internet.


igfox uses free ISM band to transmit data over the very narrow spectrum. Sigfox is designed to handle low data-transfer speeds of 10 to 1,000 bps using an Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) technology. Sigfox overcomes the problem of Wi-Fi and cellular in many applications that has short Wi-Fi range, where cellular cost is high and consumes more power.
SIGFOX is a French company that builds wireless networks, which is founded in 2009 by Ludovic Le Moan and Christophe Fourtet. Typically, it is an internet of things device that needs to transmit continuously in small amount data. Best use cases for Sigfox are electricity meters, smart watches, and washing machines.


Network protocol intended for wireless battery operated Things in regional, national or global network. LoRaWAN is a media access control (MAC) layer protocol designed for large-scale public networks with a single operator. It is built using Semtech’s LoRa modulation as the underlying PHY, but it is important to note that LoRa and LoRaWAN are two seperate things that are often (mistakenly) conflated.


Ingenu has created something called random phase multiple access (RPMA), which uses Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and is similar to code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular protocols. Before IoT was a thing, Ingenu (then OnRamp) was selling metering infrastructure that collected low power information from electricity meters. Now, it’s rebranded and is trying to become a broader player in the field (like SigFox).


Weightless-N is an ultra narrowband system that is very similar to SigFox. Instead of being a complete end-to-end enclosed system, it’s made up of a network of partners. It uses differential binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in narrow frequency channels and is intended for uplink sensor data.


Weightless-P is the latest Weightless technology. It offers two-way features and quality of service tiers, which we think is very important.


Weightless-W is an open standard designed to operate in TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. Using TVWS is attractive in theory, because it takes advantage of good ultra high frequency (UHF) spectrum that’s not otherwise in use—but it can be quite difficult in practice.


If you have a Samsung device, you probably have a radio with their protocol in it. ANT & ANT+ seem somewhat like another type of BLE system, designed to create networks that piggyback off of existing hardware. A lot of devices have ANT or ANT+ compatible chips in them, and the idea is that if you get enough of these radios added to the world, you can use them together as a mesh.


DigiMesh is one of a number of proprietary mesh systems. You can learn about the differences between it and ZigBee in this white paper.


MiWi is Microchip’s proprietary network protocol. It was created for short-range networks and designed to help customers reduce their products’ time to market.


EnOcean is a an energy harvesting wireless technology which works in the frequencies of 868 MHz for europe and 315 MHz for North America. The transmit range goes up to 30 meter in buildings and up to 300 meter outdoor. Thus, its applications are centered around building automation, smart homes, and wireless lighting control.


Dash7 is an open-source wireless network protocol with a huge RFID contract with the U.S. Department of Defense.


WirelessHART is built on the HART Communication Protocol, and is what the company considers “the industry’s first international open wireless communication standard.”

Communication / Transport layer


Internet of Things Enabling Technologies

IoT is enabled by several technologies including wireless sensor networks, cloud computing, Big data analytics, Embedded Systems, Security Protocols and architectures, communication protocols, web services, Mobile Internet, and Semantic Search engines. Here we provides an overview of some of these technologies which play a key-role in IoT.

Wireless Sensor Networks

A wireless sensor network comprises of distributed device with sensor which are used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions. A WSN consists of a number of end-nodes and routers and a coordinator. End Nodes have several sensors attached to them in node can also act as routers. Routers are responsible for routing the data packets from end-nodes  to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the data from all the nodes.  Coordinator also act as a gateway that connects the WSN to the internet. Some examples of WSNs used in IoT systems are described as follows:

  • Weather monitoring system use WSNs in which the nodes collect temperature humidity and other data which is aggregated and analyzed.
  • Indoor air quality monitoring systems use WSNs to collect data on the indoor air quality and concentration of various gases
  • Soil moisture monitoring system use WSNs to monitor soil moisture at various locations.
  • Surveillance system use WSNs for collecting Surveillance data (such as motion detection data)
  • Smart grid use WSNs for monitoring the grid at various points.
  • Structural health monitoring system use WSNs to monitor the health of structures ( buildings, bridges) by collecting vibration data from sensor nodes de deployed at various points in the structure.

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Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a trans-formative computing paradigm that involves delivering applications and services over the Internet Cloud computing involves provisioning of computing, networking and storage resources on demand and providing these resources as metered services to the users, in a “pay as you go” model.  C loud computing resources can be provisioned on demand by the users, without requiring interacyions with the cloud service Provider. The process of provisioning resources is automated. Cloud computing resources can be accessed over The network using standard access mechanisms that provide platform independent access through the use of heterogeneous client platforms such as the workstations, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

cloud computing

cloud computing

Cloud computing services are offered to users in different forms:

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): hardware is provided by an external provider and managed for you

Platform as a Service (PaaS): in addition to hardware, your operating system layer is managed for you

Software as a Service (SaaS): further to the above, an application layer is provided and managed for you – you won’t see or have to worry about the first two layers.

Big Data Analytics

Big Data analytics is the process of collecting, organizing and analyzing large sets of data (called Big Data) to discover patterns and other useful information. Big Data analytics can help organizations to better understand the information contained within the data and will also help identify the data that is most important to the business and future business decisions. Analysts working with Big Data typically want the knowledge that comes from analyzing the data.

Some examples of big data generated by IoT systems are described as follows:

  • Sensor data generated by IoT system such as weather monitoring stations.
  • Machine sensor data collected from sensors embedded in industrial and energy systems for monitoring their health and detecting Failures.
  • Health and fitness data generated by IoT devices such as wearable fitness bands
  • Data generated by ioT systems for location and tracking of vehicles
  • Data generated by retail inventory monitoring systems


Big data can be described by the following characteristics:

  • Volume – The quantity of generated and stored data. The size of the data determines the value and potential insight, and whether it can be considered big data or not.
  • Variety – The type and nature of the data. This helps people who analyze it to effectively use the resulting insight. Big data draws from text, images, audio, video; plus it completes missing pieces through data fusion.
  • Velocity – In this context, the speed at which the data is generated and processed to meet the demands and challenges that lie in the path of growth and development. Big data is often available in real-time. Compared to small data, big data are produced more continually. Two kinds of velocity related to Big Data are the frequency of generation and the frequency of handling, recording, and publishing.
  • Veracity – It is the extended definition for big data, which refers to the data quality and the data value. The data quality of captured data can vary greatly, affecting the accurate analysis.

Communication protocols

Communication protocols form the backbone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity and coupling to applications. Communication protocols allow devices to exchange data over the network. Multiple protocols often describe different aspects of a single communication. A group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol suite; when implemented in software they are a protocol stack.

Internet communication protocols are published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IEEE handles wired and wireless networking, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) handles other types. The ITU-T handles telecommunication protocols and formats for the public switched telephone network (PSTN). As the PSTN and Internet converge, the standards are also being driven towards convergence.

Embedded Systems

As its name suggests, Embedded means something that is attached to another thing. An embedded system can be thought of as a computer hardware system having software embedded in it. An embedded system can be an independent system or it can be a part of a large system. An embedded system is a controller programmed and controlled by a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured to serve as embedded system component.

An embedded system has three components −

  • It has hardware.
  • It has application software.
  • It has Real Time Operating system (RTOS) that supervises the application software and provide mechanism to let the processor run a process as per scheduling by following a plan to control the latencies. RTOS defines the way the system works. It sets the rules during the execution of application program. A small scale embedded system may not have RTOS.

Domain Specific IoTs | Internet of Things Applications

We used Internet of Things in various areas including Smart homes, healthcare, Environment, Retail and Agriculture etc.

  • Home Automation
    • Smart Ligting
    • Smart Appliances
    • Intrusion Detection
    • Smoke/Gas Detectors
  • Cities
    • Smart Parking
    • Smart Lighting
    • Smart Roads
    • Structural Health Monitoring
    • Surveillance
    • Emergency Response
  • Environment
    • Weather Monitoring
    • Air Pollution Monitoring
    • Noise Pollution Monitoring
    • Forest Fire Detection
    • River Floods Detection
  • Energy
    • Smart Grids
    • Renewable Energy Systems
    • Prognostics
  • Retail
    • Inventory Management
    • Smart Payments
    • Smart Vending Machine
  • Logistics
    • Route Generation & Scheduling
    • Fleet Tracking
    • Shipment Monitoring
    • Remote Vehicle Diagnotics
  • Agriculture
    • Smart Irrigation
    • Green House Control
  • Industry
    • Machine Diagnosis & Prognosis
    • Indoor Air Quality Monitoring
  • Health & Lifestyle
    • Health & Fitness Monitoring
    • Wearable Electronics

Government Applications in Internet of Things

  • National Defense

National threats that a country faces are of various degrees and complex. Internet of things improves and supports militia systems and services, and gives the technology vital to control the panorama of national defense. It helps the higher safety of borders through lowest cost, better performance gadgets that are manageable and remarkable. Internet of things automates the safety responsibilities that generally unfold throughout numerous departments and multiple individuals. It achieves this while enhancing accuracy and speed.

  • Smart Cities

Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can connect vehicles and infrastructure everywhere in a city, and make it safer, smarter and operate more efficiently. Technology has advanced to some extent in which there can be a real-time and meaningful interaction between towns, citizens, and agencies. Smart cities are groups that harness an area to transform bodily structures and services in a way that complements the existence of its residents and business at the same time and also making authorities extra efficient. Smart traffic signals, Smart parking, Smart street lights etc are smart solution can be build and implement with help of IoT. So we can build a intelligent City.

  • City Planning and Control

Internet of things can be used in to analyze the often complex factors of making town planning and control. Internet of things simplifies this by examining different factors which include populace increase, zoning, mapping, water delivery, transportation patterns, food delivery, social offerings, and land use. It gathers designated facts in these regions and produces more precious and accurate records than contemporary analytics given its ability to truly “live” with people in a metropolis. Inside the region of management, Internet of things supports cities through its implementation of principal services and infrastructure which include healthcare and transportation, water control, waste management, and emergency management.

  • Responding Quickly to Emergencies

Internet of things programs can examine data about an occasion very fast, supporting responders better become aware of incidents, determine the way to respond, and talk decisions (and critical moves) to those involved. Internet of things plays a better role and take better response during emergencies. Environmental Internet of things sensors, as an instance, can sign in and report early signs of an emergency or crime; already, devices which include ShotSpotter can stumble on the sound of a gunshot and pinpoint its place. By means of automatically alerting police dispatch, the tool can tell velocity response time. We build smart solutions for disaster management.

  • Building an Ecosystem for Water Safety

We know that Water is life. Many peoples used automatic water solutions but We build smart solution with help of Internet of things. Internet of things era can resolve the complicated challenges surrounding water security, allowing governments to better define priorities for water supply, consumer call for, and governance. Like other problems driven by means of multiple and various factors, improving results for water management will require contributions from a surrounding of companions, many of whom are not even privy to the role they play in water conservation.

  • Creating Jobs

Every government has big and critical problem is unemployment. Creating jobs one of the most Important government applications in Internet of things. Internet of things offers thorough economic evaluation. It makes previous blind spots seen and helps better monetary tracking and modeling. It analyzes the industry and the market to spot possibilities for increase and obstacles.

Role of Internet of Things in Smart City

Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can connect vehicles and infrastructure everywhere in a city, and make it safer, smarter and operate more efficiently.

Key Point of Smart City

  • Street Lighting
  • Traffic Light
  • Smart Parking
  • Garbage Bin Monitoring
  • Elevator
  • LED Lighting
  • Advertisement Display
  • Digital Signage
Boosted by technologies going mainstream, a better structured ecosystem and proven use cases appear in various verticals. M2M services indeed are set to play a key role in our increasingly connected world. M2M development brings inspirations for creating a smart city. In these cities, individual areas are already becoming “smarter” – from connected street lighting to intelligent public safety, from smart energy to water management. The technical basis for the Smart City is IoT. At the heart of each IoT application is the IoT module.


Cities, public organizations and Industries across the country want to reduce high energy and lighting costs by replacing their aging outdoor and street-lighting infrastructure. Smart lighting control is an example of how the Internet of Things can generate real financial savings by embedding intelligence and connectivity into everyday objects. Smart lighting makes outdoor lighting more efficient, safe, and affordable with open-standard control networking technology. Smart street-lighting sensors are connected to IOT technologies.

Smart Parking

Smart is most important component for a smart city because Searching for a parking spot in a crowded city center can at times be annoying and time-consuming. According to many researches, drivers aimlessly looking for a place to park cause up to 30 percent of all urban traffic congestion – not to mention the environmental cost and energy waste. However, a smart parking IoT solution could solve these problems. NB-IoT is a suitable technology for smart parking in cities, which can help realize the reservation and sharing of idle parking space.
Garbage Bin Monitoring
Problem of every city but we solved with Web-based waste container monitoring and advanced forecasting system can greatly improve efficiency for waste collection fleets. It has wireless module and sensor installed in the waste containers, which can monitor whether the garbage bin is full or whether there is a potential fire, and the module will send relevant data to the backend for analysis. The system then calculates optimised collection schedules and routes, send the information to urban cleaners, and hence increase their work efficiency and save manpower cost.

Smart Environment Monitoring

Sensors can be placed around the city to continuously monitor critical environmental parameters like electromagnetic field, noise, temperature/humidity, CO2/toxic gases, combustion gases to detect fire and so on. Analysis of this data can give insights on critical environmental conditions at various places in the city along with their trends.

Internet of Things (IoT) is empowering cities to respond quickly to demographic and economic shifts. It connects devices, vehicles and infrastructure everywhere in a city and makes it safer, smarter and operate more efficiently.


So, After reading this article I Hope you like our explanation. We covered a detailed information about Internet of things. Furthermore, stay tuned to learn more about Internet of Things (IoT). Till then keep liking and give your valuable feedback.

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Harshvardhan Mishra

Hi, I'm Harshvardhan Mishra. Tech enthusiast and IT professional with a B.Tech in IT, PG Diploma in IoT from CDAC, and 6 years of industry experience. Founder of HVM Smart Solutions, blending technology for real-world solutions. As a passionate technical author, I simplify complex concepts for diverse audiences. Let's connect and explore the tech world together! If you want to help support me on my journey, consider sharing my articles, or Buy me a Coffee! Thank you for reading my blog! Happy learning! Linkedin

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